Genomics is the study of the genetic structure and function of an organism’s genome, which refers to all of the organism’s genes. Genomics is associated with bioinformatics, sequencing, and interpretation of an organism’s genome. It aims at the development and application of personalized medicine and therapies for advanced sequencing of various infectious diseases, rare disorders, and critical medical conditions based on the genetic profile of an individual. The growing incidence of diseases such as diabetes and cancer coupled with the changing lifestyles and environmental effects is a significant driver for the growth of the genomics market. The rapid development of disruptive medical fields such as personalized medicine and gene therapy have also resulted in significant growth of the genomics market. The genomics market is projected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecast period 2019–2024.
Depending upon the products used, the genomics market is categorized into microarray chips, electrophoresis equipment, DNA sequencers, thermal cyclers, mass spectrometers, and others. DNA microarrays provide a way to measure multiple genes at once by reversing and parallelizing the conventional process of gene expression. Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique used to separate DNA, RNA, and protein molecules based on their size and electrical charge. A DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A) and thymine (T). Thermal cyclers, also known as PCR machines, are used as instruments to amplify DNA and RNA by the polymerase chain reaction.
Based on the various services offered, the genomics market can be categorized into bio-informatics database, tools, and laboratory services. Bio-informatics database is usually associated with automated programming intended to update and retrieve the query components of data within the system. Bio-informatics tools are utilized for the characterization of genes. There are numerous tools available in the market such as BLAST, HIMMER, Clustal Omega, and others. Laboratory services include DNA sample sequencing, DE NOVO sequencing, next-generation sequencing, target re-sequencing, individual genome sequencing, SNP analysis, gene expression analysis, and genotyping.
In the genomics market, assembling, analyzing, and sequencing can be done through various methods. The techniques used in genomics are PCR, microarray analysis, chromatography, x-ray crystallography, electrophoresis, and others. PCR is a common technique which includes DNA cloning and DNA sequencing. Chromatography is used to elute the protein of interest, which includes changing of pH or adding a competitive molecule such as imidazole. Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique used to separate DNA, RNA and protein molecules based on their size and electrical charge.
Progressive gene editing procedures, such as CRISPR-Cas9, may preferably offer imaginative approaches to modify genes to treat erratic genetic diseases.CRISPR-Cas9 is a genome-altering tool that is booming in the science world. It is faster, affordable and more precise than previous techniques of altering DNA and has a broad scope of potential applications. In terms of applications, genomics has a diversified range. The various sectors using genomics are anthropology, agriculture, cytogenetics, diagnostics, drug discovery, crime detection, and others. Anthropological genomics studies the primate phylogeny and human evolution through genetic information. Agricultural genomics is used to improve and design crops with enhanced resistance, preventing them from diseases, pest, droughts, frost, floods, and others. Cytogenetics is the branch of genetics that is concerned with the cells and chromosomes.
Advancements in technology led to a concentration on entire genomes and proteomes rather than just a single gene in a reduced amount of time. Combination of high-throughput arrangements in practical genomics has offered the probability of creating strong medications with less unfavorable impacts. The pathway-based investigation of gene-expression has increased significantly, after the advancements in genomics and customized treatments. A pathway-based investigation helps physicians in the top to bottom examination and allow to explore various opportunities to treat diseases.
Genomic studies in diagnosis can help in analyzing the information about diseases, and hence, improve the patient’s health with respect to time. Genomics and pharmacogenomics in clinical research and clinical medicine can treat diseases by modifying the medications and dosages specific to an individual patient. In crime detection, genomics deals with domestic burglary, non–domestic burglary, theft of vehicles, and others.
Genomics is also used in various end-user applications such as hospitals, clinics, research centers, academic centers, government institutes, pharmaceutical companies, forensic labs, and others.
In North America, the U.S. dominates the genomics market owing to the high incidence of inherited and rare disorders. In Canada, factors such as advancement in technology, increased awareness about rapid disease diagnosis, effective disease management, and supportive initiatives of government organizations will contribute to the growth of the genomics market. The European market is the second largest market owing to the factors such as falling cost of sequencing and growing investments from pharmaceutical companies. In the APAC region, China is the largest market for genomics due to rising innovations. South Africa is the first country to establish a genome sequencing facility in Africa.
Rapid advances in genetic technology and human genome research make it certain that genetics and genomics will become critical for the healthcare industry. In the healthcare sector, genomics is utilized for the improvement of immunizations and drugs. Genomics plays an important role in the determination of different hereditary disorders. It has a wide range of applications in personalized medication as it can recommend a medicinal treatment dependent on the hereditary make-up of an individual. It is additionally utilized in bioengineering and synthetic biology.
Improved outcome in treating patients more effectively with target therapies is propelling the genomics market. However, the social and ethical implications of genomic testing pose a major challenge to the industry. Lack of healthcare infrastructure and high testing cost are restraining the market growth in various developing countries.