Earthquake is one of the major concern and raising questions on the life span and durability of the bridges. Earthquake analysis is done for structural damage determination, monitoring and resistance that can be offered by these bridges in earthquake conditions. Focusing on the natural calamities include earthquake, super cyclone, and among others are the major concern related to the smart bridge. Presently, service & solution providers are keeping more emphasis upon designing and construction of smart infrastructure which helps to prevent the losses incurred by natural calamities. Destruction and damage of the bridges can make rescue operations more difficult and critical problems such as loss of life and infrastructure can happen. Thus, while considering ‘smart infra’ into an account in structure of these bridges is essential in order to decrease earthquake impact and increase reliability of the bridges. Depending on the susceptibility of an area towards earthquakes, five main methods have been chosen to analyze smart bridges. These five methods were idealized based on five parameters which are casualty and vulnerability reduction, possibility of localization of sensor technology, performance costs, performance speed and maintenance costs.
Vibration-based damage assessment procedure can be classified into two parts:
- Data processing of the measured data for feature extraction and information
- Processing of the extracted features for damage detection and identification
The vibrations produced by the passage of vehicles are one of the important considerations while designing of bridges. Rapid rise in the proportion of heavy vehicles and high-speed vehicles in bridges has attracted more emphasis for real time monitoring of vibration due to load in the bridges. Hence, accelerometers are used in the bridges to record bridge structure’s response to handle the loads. According to IndustryARC analysis, by sensor accelerometers are estimated to be fastest growing market projected to grow at a CAGR of 26.11% during forecast period from 2017 to 2023.
Hybrid structural health monitoring technique
To ensure structural integrity and safety, civil structures have to be equipped with Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), which aims to develop automated systems for the continuous monitoring, inspection, and damage detection of structures with minimum labor involvement. An effective SHM system can able to send the data in real time scenario, and online, detect various defects and monitor strain, stress, and temperature so that the optimum maintenance of the structures can be carried out to ensure safety and durable service life. In general, a typical SHM system includes three major components: a sensor system, a data processing system and a health evaluation system.
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